11.4 urllib2 -- extensible library for opening URLs

The urllib2 module defines functions and classes which help in opening URLs (mostly HTTP) in a complex world -- basic and digest authentication, redirections and more.

The urllib2 module defines the following functions:

urlopen(url[, data])
Open the url url, which can either a string or a Request object (currently the code checks that it really is a Request instance, or an instance of a subclass of Request).

data should be a string, which specifies additional data to send to the server. In HTTP requests, which are the only ones that support data, it should be a buffer in the format of application/x-www-form-urlencoded, for example one returned from urllib.urlencode().

This function returns a file-like object with two additional methods:

Raises URLError on errors.

install_opener(opener)
Install a OpenerDirector instance as the default opener. The code does not check for a real OpenerDirector, and any class with the appropriate interface will work.

build_opener([handler,...])
Return an OpenerDirector instance, which chains the handlers in the order given. handlers can be either instances of BaseHandler, or subclasses of BaseHandler (in which case it must be possible to call the constructor without any parameters. Instances of the following classes will be in the front of the handlers, unless the handlers contain them, instances of them or subclasses of them:

ProxyHandler, UnknownHandler, HTTPHandler, HTTPDefaultErrorHandler, HTTPRedirectHandler, FTPHandler, FileHandler

If the Python installation has SSL support (socket.ssl() exists), HTTPSHandler will also be added.

The following exceptions are raised as appropriate:

exception URLError
The error handlers raise when they run into a problem. It is a subclass of IOError.

exception HTTPError
A subclass of URLError, it can also function as a non-exceptional file-like return value (the same thing that urlopen() returns). This is useful when handling exotic HTTP errors, such as requests for authentication.

exception GopherError
A subclass of URLError, this is the error raised by the Gopher handler.

The following classes are provided:

class Request(url[, data[, headers]])
This class is an abstraction of a URL request.

url should be a string which is a valid URL. For descrtion of data see the add_data() description. headers should be a dictionary, and will be treated as if add_header() was called with each key and value as arguments.

class OpenerDirector()
The OpenerDirector class opens URLs via BaseHandlers chained together. It manages the chaining of handlers, and recovery from errors.

class BaseHandler()
This is the base class for all registered handlers -- and handles only the simple mechanics of registration.

class HTTPDefaultErrorHandler()
A class which defines a default handler for HTTP error responses; all responses are turned into HTTPError exceptions.

class HTTPRedirectHandler()
A class to handle redirections.

class ProxyHandler([proxies])
Cause requests to go through a proxy. If proxies is given, it must be a dictionary mapping protocol names to URLs of proxies. The default is to read the list of proxies from the environment variables protocol_proxy.

class HTTPPasswordMgr()
Keep a database of (realm, uri) -> (user, password) mappings.

class HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm()
Keep a database of (realm, uri) -> (user, password) mappings. A realm of None is considered a catch-all realm, which is searched if no other realm fits.

class AbstractBasicAuthHandler([password_mgr])
This is a mixin class that helps with HTTP authentication, both to the remote host and to a proxy.

password_mgr should be something that is compatible with HTTPPasswordMgr -- supplies the documented interface above.

class HTTPBasicAuthHandler([password_mgr])
Handle authentication with the remote host. Valid password_mgr, if given, are the same as for AbstractBasicAuthHandler.

class ProxyBasicAuthHandler([password_mgr])
Handle authentication with the proxy. Valid password_mgr, if given, are the same as for AbstractBasicAuthHandler.

class AbstractDigestAuthHandler([password_mgr])
This is a mixin class, that helps with HTTP authentication, both to the remote host and to a proxy.

password_mgr should be something that is compatible with HTTPPasswordMgr -- supplies the documented interface above.

class HTTPDigestAuthHandler([password_mgr])
Handle authentication with the remote host. Valid password_mgr, if given, are the same as for AbstractBasicAuthHandler.

class ProxyDigestAuthHandler([password_mgr])
Handle authentication with the proxy. password_mgr, if given, shoudl be the same as for the constructor of AbstractDigestAuthHandler.

class HTTPHandler()
A class to handle opening of HTTP URLs.

class HTTPSHandler()
A class to handle opening of HTTPS URLs.

class FileHandler()
Open local files.

class FTPHandler()
Open FTP URLs.

class CacheFTPHandler()
Open FTP URLs, keeping a cache of open FTP connections to minimize delays.

class GopherHandler()
Open gopher URLs.

class UnknownHandler()
A catch-all class to handle unknown URLs.


Subsections
See About this document... for information on suggesting changes.


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